Pain is common in neurological diseases. It may be a sentinel marker of a disease, as in acute back pain, or a consequence of disease, as in stroke or spinal cord injury. Identifying the different painful neurological illness requires specialised neurological skills and testing. The neurologist will thus have a primary role to properly diagnose, classify and treat all the neurological entities associated with pain. He is a key player in a multidisciplinary team devoted to pain management.